Photograph Archives


With its origins in the pioneering work of Bernard and Mary Berenson, the Fototeca, or Photograph Archive, has long been celebrated as an outstanding resource for the study of the history of art. Now holding around 250,000 photographic prints and other related materials, the still-growing collection contains photographs of artworks in many media ranging from Antiquity to the middle of the 20th century, focusing on the Mediterranean basin but including other parts of the world. Its spotlight is on Italian art, especially painting and drawing, of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance from 1250 to 1600, and it is only this part of the collection that continues to be developed systematically.

Berenson’s wide interests beyond the Italian Renaissance are reflected in his photo collection. Important materials acquired by Berenson or sent to him by art dealers and private collectors are found also in minor sections, which include illuminated manuscripts, Italian sculpture, architecture, and views; later (that is, late 16th- to 20th-century) Italian painting; archaeology; early Christian, Byzantine and medieval art; applied arts; and non-Italian art. Of particular importance are the Asian and Islamic materials, including some 2800 vintage prints from the negatives taken by Islamic architectural historian Sir Keppel Archibald Cameron Creswell (1879-1974), and now held by the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, Oxford, or the collection of splendid views of India acquired by Berenson around 1914 from the photographers Johnston and Hoffmann, based in Calcutta.

These visual and textual records document the Berensons’ working methods and Bernard's influential career as art critic and connoisseur. They also furnish a wealth of evidence on individual works of art, for instance their passages through successive collections or art dealers’ hands, or traces of restorations over time. The archive's images throw critical light too on such general art historical issues as photography in the service of art history, the history of collecting, and the twentieth-century art market.



Homeless Paintings of the Italian Renaissance

A group of images of Renaissance Italian paintings that Berenson famously classified as “homeless.”

The Life of Saint Francis

An unusual and rich collection of over 1,500 color images of the remarkable fresco cycle in the upper church of San Francesco in Assisi. 


The Berenson Library's photographic holdings are the result both of purchases and of important donations and bequests. Since Berenson’s death in 1959, many study photograph collections once belonging to other art historians or conservators have been added to the original nucleus.  These include, for example, photographs from Hermann Voss (1884-1969), George Kaftal (1897-1987), Henry P. Clifford (1904-1975), Giuseppe Marchini (1914-1986), Frederick Hartt (1914-1991), Gerhard Ewald (1927-1997), Andrea Rothe and Studio Cabras.


Others have been maintained as distinct collections, including the following:  


Photographs and negatives, part of the papers of art historian and critic Giorgio Castelfranco (1896-1978) donated by his son Paolo. This study material most significantly reflects Castelfranco’s fundamental studies on Leonardo da Vinci and also Italian 20th-century painting, in particular Giorgio De Chirico.

Di Giampaolo

Study collection of the art historian Mario Di Giampaolo (1941-2008), with some 11,000 photographs, clippings and photocopies representing mostly Italian drawings.


Group of photographic albums from the late 19th to the early 20th centuries collected by Paul and Gabriele Geier and bequeathed by the latter to Villa I Tatti.


Collection of 1300 glass plates negatives and their related prints, documenting the work of Giannino Marchig (1897-1983), especially as a conservator, and showing paintings and sculptures in various stages of conservation. This archive came to Villa I Tatti through Fiorella Gioffredi Superbi, daughter of Geremia Gioffredi, Berenson’s estate manager, to whom Marchig entrusted his archive before leaving Italy for Switzerland. For a description of this collection click here.


Photographs, drawings and notes of the Florentine architect Emilio Marcucci (1837-1890). This material was bequeathed as part of the Roberto and Livia Papini Papers. It comprises mainly early photographs of Italian architecture and views, and documents Marcucci’s use of photography for his architectural projects in the second half of the 19th century.


Photographs collected by the architectural historian and critic Roberto Papini (1883-1957), close friend of Berenson. This photographic material is part of the Roberto and Livia Papini Papers and is focused mainly on Italian art of the 20th century.


Photographs donated by former I Tatti director Craig Hugh Smyth (1915-2006). Smyth’s archive, including his study photographs, was recently donated by his heirs to Villa I Tatti, and is currently being processed.


Collection of photographic albums from the late 19th to the early 20th centuries, loose albumen prints, stereoscopic pictures, and two stereoscopic viewers from Giorgio Voli and his wife Elizabeth MacGillvray's, bequeathed by the latter to Harvard University.